List of agreements between two states, two blocs or one bloc and one state. Afghanistan has bilateral agreements with the following countries and blocs: In 2010, Russia established a customs union with Kazakhstan and Belarus. This customs union became the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) in 2015. Armenia and Kyrgyzstan joined the EAEU the same year. The EAEU has legal jurisdiction in many trade-related policy areas, such as customs, competition, trade defence and industrial products regulation, intellectual property rights and foreign trade policy. Note: Any customs union, every common market, any economic union, the Customs and Monetary Union and the Economic and Monetary Union are also a free trade area. List of agreements being negotiated. Agreements that have so far been discussed only in the absence of formal action by the parties concerned are not mentioned. The European Union and Russia have an important bilateral trade relationship. Russia is the EU`s fifth largest trading partner and the EU is Russia`s largest trading partner. As has already been pointed out, bilateral trade flows have fluctuated sharply in recent years.
An interactive list of bilateral and multilateral free trade instruments can be find on the TREND Analytics website.  The People`s Republic of China has concluded bilateral trade agreements with the blocs, countries and their two specific administrative regions: Since 2012, when Russia joined the WTO, trade relations between the EU and Russia are also marked by multilateral WTO rules. The Eurasian Economic Union, composed of Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan, has concluded free trade agreements, see below. Switzerland (which has a customs union with Liechtenstein, which is sometimes contained in agreements) has bilateral agreements with the following countries and blocs: A second factor is the import substitution policy that Russia has been implementing gradually since 2012 and which largely coincides with Russia`s accession to the WTO. WTO membership had raised hopes that trade with Russia would benefit from sustainable liberalization. Instead, Russia has gradually taken many steps to promote domestic products and services over foreign products and to encourage the location of production in Russia by foreign companies. Related measures are often contrary to the spirit and/or letter of WTO rules and are at the root of many trade stimuli. Since Russia joined the WTO in 2012, the EU has submitted four WTO disputes against Russia: since 1997, the EU`s political and economic relations with Russia have been based on a bilateral Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (APC). The trade components of the agreement aim to promote trade and investment and to establish mutually beneficial economic relations between the EU and Russia. Since 2014, the illegal annexation of Crimea and the conflict in eastern Ukraine have seriously undermined bilateral political dialogue. As a result, some of the political dialogues and cooperation mechanisms, including in the trade field, have been suspended. In 2008, the EU and Russia began negotiations for a new agreement to establish a comprehensive framework for bilateral trade and investment relations.
In March 2014, the European Council suspended negotiations due to the situation in Ukraine. Turkey has bilateral and multilateral agreements: it is a list of free trade agreements between two parties in which each party could be a country (or another customs territory), a trade bloc or an informal group of countries. Full multilateral agreements (not listed below) see: List of multilateral free trade agreements. EFTA  has bilateral agreements with the following countries and blocs, including dependent territories: the aim of this study was to analyse the effects of a possible free trade agreement between the EU and Russia and to explore options ranging from flat liberalisation based solely on the abolition of tariffs to a comprehensive free trade agreement included