The U.S.-Canada treaty requires the promotion and facilitation of adequate cooperation between provinces and states in emergency management. The Stafford Act requires the director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency „to provide states with any viable assistance to the organization by the Department of Foreign Affairs of emergency mutual assistance between states and neighboring countries.“ 8 One of the tasks of the U.S. Health Commission of Mexico is to establish a system for collecting health data and monitoring health problems in the U.S.-Mexico border region. The PPS, founded on March 23, 2005 by the leaders of the United States, Mexico and Canada, calls for a „healthier North America.“ In line with this objective, the SPP`s efforts include improving mechanisms for the exchange of information, developing cross-border protocols for mutual assistance, implementing guidelines developed by the Health Working Group of the U.S.-Mexico National Commission for the Coordination of Epidemiological Events of Mutual Interest between the United States and Mexico, and establishing an early warning system for infe disease surveillance. ctieuses (EWIDS). For the latter element, DHHS provides funding to 20 border states and Mexico for the development of EWIDS systems in liaison with cross-border provinces and states in Canada and Mexico. Mutual assistance agreements (MMA) and other types of aid delivery agreements before, during and after an emergency event facilitate the rapid mobilization of personnel, equipment and stocks. Agreements can be concluded at several levels of government: between public/local authorities; between a State and localities of the State; between two or more States in a region; Between states and tribes; or internationally between states and jurisdictions neighbouring Canada or Mexico. MAAS can also exist in a large number of types of organizations, including governments, non-profit organizations, and private companies.
These agreements can extend in the form of formal pacts integrated by the legislative power of a state into a law, to informal memoranda of understanding explaining how public and private resources provide assistance within a given community. Emergency MAAs typically face problems with emergency management, fire, law enforcement, and medical response, although they can address other issues (see below). Participation in WMO is considered an important component of the Federal National Incident Management System (NIMS), which aims to provide a systematic approach to assist governments at all levels, non-governmental organizations and the private sector in carrying out collaborative emergency prevention and response activities.1 Aid agreements accelerate emergency response by establishing protocols for requesting and delivering assistance, as well as guidelines and procedures for e 1999, 1995, 1995, 1994, 1 In this way, the extent to which these issues have to be negotiated with each new event will be eliminated or reduced. Assistance agreements formalized prior to the event can also expedite FEMA`s reimbursement for services, equipment, and supplies provided by mutual assistance. FEMA reimburses the costs of mutual assistance when assistance has been requested (i.e.: No spontaneous assistance), assistance requested directly related to a disaster eligible for FEMA assistance, and as part of a mutual assistance agreement signed in writing.2 The assistance agreement must apply in all situations, not just to events that trigger a Stafford Act emergency/disaster declaration or are eligible for federal assistance. Only the organization requesting mutual assistance can apply directly for a grant from FEMA. Organizations providing assistance must request reimbursement from the applicant organization. FEMA reimburses oral assistance agreements, but these must be recorded in writing after the event and signed by an official of each institution as a condition of receipt of FEMA reimbursement. Regardless of the type of mutual aid activity, mutual assistance agreements are essential to define the rules, processes and procedures to be followed when exchanging information, resources or personnel.. . .